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Text1: Magnets

1 A magnet is a substance which attracts certain other substances. 2 A substance which is attracted by a magnet can itself be made into a magnet.

3Generally speaking, there are three substances which are attracted by a magnet: iron, cobalt and nickel. 4Substances which are attracted by a magnet are known as magnetic substances, and those which are not are referred to as non-magnetic substances. 5Iron, cobalt and nickel are magnetic substances. 6They are attracted by magnets and they can themselves be magnetized.

7Mixtures of metals, or alloys, which contain a magnetic substance generally also have magnetic properties. 8Some alloys containing none of the above metals, however, are also magnetic. 9Certains alloys containing manganese, aluminium and copper belong to this class. 10They are magnetic, even though they contain no metal which is itself magnetic.

11A magnet will attract a magnetic substance like iron. 12Not all parts of a magnet, however, have equal attractive force. 13If a bar magnet is placed in iron filings, most of the filings will stick to the ends of the magnet, and very few will adhere to the central part. 14The force of attraction, or magnetic force, is concentrated near the ends of the magnet. 15These areas are known as the poles.

16A magnet sets in a definite direction when freely suspended. 17If a bar magnet is suspended by a thread and allowed to move freely, it will come to rest with one pole pointing towards the south. 18The pole pointing towards the north is called the north-seeking, or north, pole; and that which points towards the south the south-seeking, or south, pole.

19If the north poles of two freely suspended magnets are brought into proximity, so that they are close together, the ends of the two magnets will swing away from each other. 20If on the other hand the north pole of one magnet is brought close to the south pole of the other, the two ends will attract each other. 21A north pole will attract a south pole and repel another north pole, and be attracted by a south pole and repelled by another north pole. 22Like* poles repel one another and unlike** poles attract one another.

* similar  - ** different


I/ True or not true?

a)      A magnet attracts other substances.

b)      Iron, cobalt and nickel are the three substances which are attracted by a magnet.

c)      Cobalt can be made into a magnet.

d)      Alloys which contain a magnetic substance are always magnetic.

e)      Manganese is a non-magnetic substance.

f)        Alloys containing aluminium are magnetic.

g)      The central part of a bar magnet has no magnetic force.

h)      Most of the magnetic force in a magnet is near the poles.

i)        A south pole will attract a north pole.

j)        A north pole and a south pole are like poles.

k)      Two magnets freely suspended will swing away from each other when they are brought close together.

 II/ Contextual reference

1.      In sentence 8, the above metals refers to:  (a) Iron, cobalt and nickel. (b) Alloys.

2.      In sentence 9, this class refers to:  (a) The class of alloys which contain a magnetic substance.  (b) The class of alloys which contain no iron, cobalt or nickel but are magnetic.  (c) The class of alloys which contain manganese, aluminium and copper.

3.      In sentence 10, they refers to:  (a) Manganese, aluminium and copper.   (b) Certain alloys containing manganese, aluminium and copper.

4.      In sentence 15, these areas refers to:  (a) The force of attraction   (b) The ends of the magnet.

5.      In sentence 19, they refers to:   (a) The north poles.   (b) The two magnets.

 III/  Paragraph  writing

                   Stage 1: sentence building

 1.      MAGNETIZED/ SO THAT/ UPRIGHT/ WITH/ PROTRUDING/ , AND/ HORIZONTALLY  Place a knitting needle in a cork/ it will float in a trough of water/ its north pole will just protrude  out of the cork/ support a bar magnet above the water

2.     THAT/;/(17971867)/TO/OF/WHAT/SURROUNDING                                                                 it is important to realize this/ lines of force have no objective existence/ they were suggested by Michael Faraday/ they give a mental picture/ something is happening in the space/ the space surrounds a magnet

3.      FLOATING/ WITH ITS/ AND/ IT                                                                                                        put the needle near the magnet/ the north pole of the needle will be near the north pole of the magnet/ release  the needle

4.      THE EXISTENCE OF/ BY A SIMPLE EXPERIMENT                                                                        lines of force exist/ this may be demonstrated

5.      TO THE SOUTH POLE OF THE MAGNET                                                                                        the needle will travel along a curved path

6.      TO/ DIFFERENT/ , AND/ SO                                                                                                               a diagram can be drawn/ the diagram will represent the paths/ the paths are traced out by the needle/ the lines are drawn/ the lines  indicate lines of magnetic force

7.      ; THAT IS, / TEND TO/ WHICH                                                                                               the forces act along definite lines/ magnetic poles will be driven along certain lines/ these lines are called lines of force

8.      AS/ AN INDEPENDENT/ WHEN/ IT/ FREE TO MOVE                                                                     we can define a line of magnetic force/ a line of magnetic force is the path of a needle/ the path is  traced out by a north pole/ the north pole is under the influence of a magnet

9.      THE/ ROUND A MAGNET/ CALLED                                                                                                 this area is a magnetic field        

10.  IF/ WITH/ , / ALWAYS/ , BUT                                                                                                             the experiment is repeated/ the needle will be in different starting positions/ the starting positions will be near the north pole of the magnet/ the needle will travel to the south pole/ the needle will travel along different paths

 Stage 2: Paragraph building

 Rewrite the ten sentences in a logical order to make a paragraph. Before you write the paragraphs, add the following material:

·        write within this field at the beginning of sentence 7

When you have written your paragraph, re-read it and make sure that the sentences are presented in a logical order.


 Text 2: Societys right to kill

Men of good will recognize it to be incontestably true that we are our brothers keepers, and one man cannot be abandoned and sacrificed upon the altar of societys sometimes unreasonable demands without disturbing all mankind. There was a time when society thought that criminals should be beheaded, burned, boiled or buried alive. When men were strangled, stoned or starved to death; when they were forced to drink poison, crucified, or drowned; when they were eaten alive by snakes or lions, all of hthis in the name of justice and all because it was the law of the state.

As odious and savage as these practices sound us today, lets face the fact that electrocution will be listed as another barbarous, cruel uncivilized punishment. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, 19,000 Englishmen were executed but the crime rate continued to rise.

During the reign of Henry VIII, 72,000 Englishmen were executed; this howaver did not seem to deter Englishmen from committing crimes.

Peter I, tsar of Russia, in 1728 put to death 8,000 Russians, because they were wearing beards, and yet today we can hardly think of a Russian without a beard.

To me, one of the most compelling arguments against capital punishment is the possibility of mistake. So many times have the innocent been mistakenly convicted or wrongly convicted. Now I am going to give you a full descrption of how the state kills a man: at about 5:30 in the afternoon of the eve of the execution, the prisoner is shaved, bathed. He must be clean so that it is unecessary to bathe his body after the electrocution.

Then they give him a new shirt and a new pair of pants, without a belt and shoes without laces.

Next a priest of his choice visits him to offer whatever words of assurance. Then the condemned man is given an opportunity to eat some good meal of his choice. Then his family is permitted to visit him until midnight. And in the morning he is placed in the electric chair and killed.

                                                 Adapted from Joe W. Henry, Jr.


To behead: to cut the head

To deter: to prevent

The eve: the day before

Altar: autel


 1.      What is the apparent difference that exists between how people were put to death in the past and now?

2.      Can we say, according to the text that the tradition of capital punishment through the centuries had really an impact on people?

3.      What element causes the author to be against capital punishment?

4.      Why isnt the prisoner given any belt or laces among the clothes he receives before the execution?

5.      Do you personally think that capital punishment should be suppressed? Justify your answer.

Happy New Year 2002

Text 3: Man: a most adaptable animal


here are many areas in this world where not every kind of organism can live. For example, there are no trees in the Arctic regions, the land of the polar bear. Of course, there are no polar bears in the lush vegetation of the tropics. Man, on the other hand, lives successfully in both of these environments. In fact, he has found ways to survive anywhere on Earth. He has learned to alter this environment to suit him. If he needs large amounts of water for big cities, he builds dams. If he needs water for farming the desert, he builds irrigation canals. Neither the highest mountain nor the deepest rivers stop the movement of man. How does he overcome such obstacles?

Medicines and insecticides help man destroy organisms that he considers a threat of his food supply. He has learned to survive in unfavourable or hostile environment. For example, he tunnels underground, works in the frigid Polar Regions, and explores at various depths in the oceans. Also he can live at high altitudes where no other organism can exist. If a man moves from sea level to 5,000 feet above sea level, where the air has less oxygen, certain functional adaptations will enable him to survive in the thin air. His breathing will increase. The number of his red blood cells will increase, and his heart will beat faster, causing the red blood cells to circulate more quickly. Most other animals can adjust to this slight change in environment. Suppose, however, that an animal is carried to a height of 25,000 feet. Will it survive? It probably would not be able to adjust to the reduced air pressure and to the lack of oxygen at this altitude. Man is exception, however, because he has survived at this altitude for extended periods of time. In fact, you may have done so yourself. Have you ever flown in an airplane? Jet airplanes fly above 25,000 feet. How do passengers survive? Do they adapt to this almost-oxygen-free environment? Of course not. The plane cabins are pressurized so that the environment resembles that at a lower altitude.

Man has this selective advantage over the plants and other animals: if he cannot adapt to a changing environment, he adapts the environment. A question of survival, Life.



A few dozen silent mourners will stand with heads bowed to-day paying their weekly respects at Britains busiest cemetery for animals.

All of them have dogs, cats, or even monkeys buried under the neat rows of white crosses and headstones. Epitaphs range from I will never forget you my darling to Sleep well old son.

They and the owners of a few hundred other dead pets have brought such a boom to the animal burial business that the project, run by the Canine Defence League, is about to expand.

Soon the League will open a 7,000-grave cemetery with its own modern £ 2,000 crematorium and a Garden of Rest with landscaped lawns and rose trees.

For a local undertaker there will be even more special coffins to be made. And the London stonemason who is sharing the boom will be getting more requests for his specially produced brochure showing appropriate headstones for animals.

Mr Pettit started it all 10 months ago when he was asked by an elderly widow to bury her pet tortoise, Jimmy.

At first I thought it was a bit strange, and I tried to put her off, he said. Finally he agreed. He did not know what he was starting.

I never anticipated any big demand. I thought perhaps wed be asked to bury one a month.

The owners of 200 other pets have already booked spaces for when their animals die. The latest one on the waiting-list is a horse. Itll be a big job, but well arrange it.

The burials themselves three took place yesterday are tearful. The people like to see the lid placed down on the coffin and invariably like to shovel the first earth themselves. Its never pleasant. Often I have to lead people away. Mr pettit always changes into a lounge suit for the burials: They expect it;

Adapted from


The Observer, November 8, 1964.




1.Pet: An animal kept for amusement or companionship. 2.To mourn: To show grief or sorrow for a death 3.To bow: To bend     4.Headstone: A memorial stone set at the head of a grave. 5.Epitaph: An inscription in memory of the one buried    6.To bury: To place a dead body (a corpse) in a grave, a tomb 7. £ 2,000: (sterling) British money   8.Lawn: grass    9.Undertaker: One, especially an entrepreneur, that undertakes a task or job.   10.Coffin: A box in which a corpse is buried.   11.Stonemason: One that prepares and lays stones in building.   12.Widow: A woman whose husband has died and who has not remarried   13.To book: To arrange for (tickets) in advance; reserve. 14.Tearful: Filled with or accompanied by tears.   15.A lid: a cover   16.A showel: A tool with a handle for digging and moving material, such as dirt or snow or earth.  17.Lounge: A public waiting room, as in a hotel 18.Suit: A costume for a special activity:





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